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Resonance Structures

This theory states that molecules for which two or more satisfactory Lewis structures can be drawn are an average, or hybrid, of these structures.

Here is the example of Benzene. There are 2 different ways of drawing the structure.


The hybridized structure is an average of the 2  Lewis structures. Therefore each bond is more like a 3/2 bond, not a double or single. This explains why all the bond lengths are the same and are not different sizes.


So if a structure can have a double bond on a different atom, it must be draw. Place a double headed arrow  <=> between the 2. There may be 3 or 4 possible structures, this is a pain, but all must be drawn.

Here are more Lewis structures videos of molecules with resonance.

Lewis Dot of the Chlorate Ion  ClO3-

Lewis Dot of the Chlorite Ion ClO2-

Lewis Dot of Chlorine Dioxide ClO2

Lewis Dot of the Sulfate Ion SO42-

Lewis Dot of the Sulfite Ion  SO32-

Lewis Dot of the Nitrate Ion  NO3-

Lewis Dot of the Nitrite Ion  NO2-

Lewis Dot of Nitrogen Dioxide NO2

Lewis Dot of the Carbonate Ion  CO32-


Chemical Demonstration Videos