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Naming Acids

 

Acids-For simplicity, the acids that we will be concerned with naming are really just a special class of ionic compounds where the cation is always H+. So if the formula has hydrogen written first, then this usually indicates that the hydrogen is an H+ cation and that the compound is an acid. When dissolved in water, acids produce H+ ions (also called protons, since removing the single electron from a neutral hydrogen atom leaves behind one proton).

 

Rules for Naming Acids that Do Not Contain Oxygen in the Anion:

  • Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.
  • The acid name comes from the root name of the anion name.
  • The prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic are then added to the root name of the anion.

HCl, which contains the anion chloride, is called hydrochloric acid.

HCN, which contains the anion cyanide, is called hydrocyanic acid.

Rules for Naming Oxyacids (anion contains the element oxygen):

  • Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.
  • The acid name comes from the root name of the oxyanion name or the central element of the oxyanion.
  • Suffixes are used based on the ending of the original name of the oxyanion. If the name of the polyatomic anion ended with -ate, change it to -ic for the acid and if it ended with -ite, change it to -ous in the acid.

HNO3, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrate, is called nitric acid.

HNO2, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrite, is called nitrous acid.

Highlight to reveal Anion name and Acid name

FormulaAnionAnion nameAcid Name
HFFis fluoridehydrofluoric acid
HClClis chloridehydrochloric acid
HBrBr is bromidehydrobromic acid
HIIis iodidehydriodic acid
H2SS2- is sulfidehydrosulfuric acid
HNO3NO3- is nitratenitric acid
HC2H3O2C2H3O2- is acetateacetic acid
H2SO4SO42- is sulfatesulfuric acid
H2CO3CO32- is carbonatecarbonic acid
H3PO4PO43- is phosphatephosphoric acid
HClOClO» is hypochloritehypochlorous acid
HClO2ClO2» is chloritechlorous acid
HClO3ClO3» is chloratechloric acid
HClO4ClO4» is perchlorateperchloric acid
HIO3IO3» is iodateiodic acid
HNO2NO2» is nitritenitrous acid
H2SO3SO32- is sulfitesulfurous acid

Naming Covalent Compounds   Naming Binary Ionic Compounds  Polyatomic Ions Naming with Polyatomic Ions  Naming with Roman Numerals  Formula Writing  Naming Acids

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