What is Organic Chemistry?
The chemistry of carbon containing compounds.
Why is Organic Chemistry important?
Pervasive in nature, chemical foundation of biology, and can improve our standard of living (medicines, plastics, pesticides)
How does Carbon Bond?
Carbon is able to form up to 4 bonds. Carbon can hybridize the 2s and the 3 2p orbitals into a new hybrid orbital (either sp3, sp2 or and sp)
Each atom has a limited number of possibilities to satisfy octet:
1. Nonbonding (electron pair localized on one atom)
2. Bonding (electron pair shared between two atoms)
a. Single bond (1 shared pair;sp3 hybridization)
b. Double bond (2 shared pairs; sp2 hybridization)
c. Triple bond (3 shared pairs; sp hybridization)
Why is it important that carbon can bond with itself?
It makes it possible for large number of organic molecules. Even more numerous than inorganic compounds.
What are sources of Organic Raw Materials?
Petroleum, coal, wood, and other plant and animal sources
What are some characteristics of organic compounds?
Mostly Nonpolar, so they usually do not dissolve in water (e.g. oil).
Some however, are polar or slightly polar and do dissolve in water (e.g. acids and alcohols).
Non electrolytes except for orgainic acids which are weak electrolytes.
Usually they have a low melting point, due to weak intermolecular forces.
The melting point generally increases with an increase in the number of carbons.
Melting point boiling points
generally slow due to strong covalent bonding between carbon atoms
What are Hydrocarbons?
A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Hydrocarbons contain a backbone consisting of carbon atoms, called a carbon skeleton with hydrogen atoms attached to that backbone. Hydrocarbons, which are combustible, are the main components of fossil fuels, which include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. The most abundant hydrocarbon is methane.
What are Isomers?
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula.
They all have a molecular formula of C3H8O, but have different structures. So as the number of carbons increase the number of Isomers increase.
What does saturated and unsaturated mean?
A saturated hydrocarbon (or other organic molecule) has utilized all of its bonding electrons to make single bonds to other atoms. It can not make additional bonds without cutting off part of the existing molecule. saturated
An unsaturated hydrocarbon (or other organic molecule) contains double or triple bonds between certain atoms. These bonds may be broken and new atoms attached without disrupting the existing skeleton of the hydrocarbon.
What is a homologous series?
In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of organic
compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties
due to the presence of the same functional group, and shows a gradation in
physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass (see
relative molecular mass). For example, ethane has a higher boiling point than
methane since it has more Van der Waals forces with neighboring molecules. This
is due to the increase in the number of atoms making up the molecule. Organic
compounds in the same homologous series vary by a CH2.
What are the general formulas?
on to Naming Alkanes
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