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Aldehydes

 

aldehyde general formula

What are aldehydes?

A compound with a carbon atom which is bonded to a hydrogen atom and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. This is found on the end of the chain, ketones have this carbon in the middle (no H either).

Nomenclature-The name is formed by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to -al, so that HCHO is named methanal, and CH3CH2CH2CHO is named butanal.


 

Examples- to see the names highlight name left of the structure

Name Condensed Structures
methanal HCHO
ethanal CH3CHO
propanal CH3CH2CHO
butanal CH3CH2CH2CHO
pentanal CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO

 

Expanded Structure Name
ethanal
propanal

Synthesis

A primary alcohol reacts with an oxidizing agent to make an aldehyde

         R-OH + Ox. Agent→ RH=O

Example

1-Propanol is oxidized to propanal

CH3CH2CH2OH + Ox. Agent—→ CH3CH2CHO

on to Ketones

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